Submitted: 23 Dec 2020
Revision: 05 Apr 2021
Accepted: 29 May 2021
ePublished: 05 Jun 2021
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Int J Phytocos Nat Ingred. 2021;8(1): 4.
doi: 10.15171/ijpni.2021.04
  Abstract View: 1578
  PDF Download: 1090

Original Research

Application of factorial design in the development of cosmetic formulations with carrageenan and argan oil

Victor Hugo Pacagnelli Infante ORCID logo, Patrícia MBG Maia Campos*

1 School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil


Background: Gel-cream formulations used as cosmetics can present various textures. They may be fluid or semisolid, being highly influenced by their composition. These presentations require a complete study to obtain information about the physical stability and consistency of the product and the possible interaction between its compounds. In this context, this study aimed to develop cosmetic formulations using carrageenan and argan oil and assess through factorial design the influencing factors on the physical-mechanical properties.
Materials and Methods: This study presents two different moments, totalizing 28 formulations developed. First, 27 formulations were formulated according to a 3³ factorial design study to understand the influences of concentrations, processes, and interactions between the raw material. In a second moment, four formulations were selected from this factorial: F1 (1% carrageenan, without argan oil); F2 (2% argan oil; without carrageenan); F3 (without both), and F4, the formulation with the presence of both in the highest concentration. The formulation F4 was utilized to create F5, which presents the same basic composition as F4, but added 0.1% of NaCl. All the formulations were studied regarding the texture parameters using the TA.XT Texturometer.
Results: The natural ingredients carrageenan and argan oil presented a synergistic action in improving the physical-mechanical properties of the formulation. It is possible to observe that the viscosity index is the most affected parameter according to the presence or absence of the variation of the raw materials. The addition of NaCl increased significatively all the physical-mechanical parameters studied. Thus, the formulation F4 presented higher results for consistency and index of viscosity when compared with F1, with the only carrageenan.
Conclusions: This work has a significant contribution once showed that the use of factorial design could contribute to developing more suitable cosmetic formulations, besides evidence the possible interactions between the raw materials from natural sources, giving subsidies for the development of more stable cosmetics and with superior performance.
Keywords: Factorial design, Argan oil, Cosmetics, Carrageenan, Texture
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